When Must A Proxy Include The "General Nature Of The Matter To Be Voted On"?

The California Nonprofit Corporation Law defines a "proxy" as a "written authorization signed by a member or the member's attorney in fact giving another person or persons power to vote on behalf of such member". Cal. Corp. Code § 5069. The other...

Do E-mail Exchanges Constitute A Meeting Of The Board?

I recently discussed whether chat messages constitute "minutes" of a meeting.  A related question is whether emails constitute a meeting.

Can A Member Bring A Derivative Action On Behalf Of A California Nonprofit Corporation?

Like many questions in the law, the answer to the question of whether a member of a California nonprofit corporation may maintain a derivative action is "it depends". 

Can Any Superior Court Judge Access Your Church's Books?

The California Corporations Code allows for the incorporation of a corporation sole by the bishop, chief priest, presiding elder, or other presiding officer of any religious denomination, society, or church, for the purpose of administering and...

For How Long Is That Proxy Valid?

Section 705(a) of the California Corporations Code provides that no proxy is valid after the expiration of 11 months from the date thereof unless otherwise provided in the proxy. This is a reflection of the fact that proxies are typically obtained...

This Corporation Was Harmed Even Before It Was Incorporated!
The Church of the Celestial Heart is a California nonprofit religious corporation seeks to import and use a sacramental tea. It so happens that this tea, which is also called Daime or ayahuasca, carries trace amounts of a Schedule I chemical. After...
If Harvard Is A Corporation, Does Its Board Owe Fiduciary Duties?

Of late, Harvard has garnered an abundance of attention regarding the continued incumbency of its President. Despite widely criticized testimony before Congress and the publication of allegations of plagiarism, the Harvard Corporation recently...

Is It Possible That Some Possibilities Are Unreasonable?

Section 5342(e) of the California Corporations Code requires a nonprofit public benefit corporation to provide, upon the request of a member, to either allow inspection and copying of all members' names, addresses or voting rights or provide an...

When Cumulative Voting Precludes Election Of Directors By Ballot

The California Nonprofit Mutual Benefit Corporation Law contemplates three different methods for members to take action: at a meeting, by ballot, and by unanimous written consent. Cal. Corp. Code §§ 7512(a), 7513 & 7516. Although the California...

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